The performance data quoted above represents past performance. Past performance is not a guarantee of future results. Performance may be lower or higher than performance data quoted. Index performance is for illustrative purposes only and does not represent actual Fund performance. One cannot invest directly in an index. Performance data for the Index assumes reinvestment of dividends and is net of the management fees for the Index's components, as applicable, but it does not reflect management fees, transaction costs or other expenses that you would pay if you invested in the Fund directly. Results prior to an Index component's existence as an ETF are based on its underlying index, which do not reflect underlying management fees.